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Write a review Rate this item: Preview this item Preview this item. Polish View all editions and formats Rating: Jewish and Romani minorities each have 2 minority languages recognized.
Also, official recognition is granted to two Romani languages: Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma. Official recognition of a language provides certain rights under conditions prescribed by the law: The Poles are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to Poland, who share a common ancestry, culture, history, religion and are native speakers of the Polish language, along with its various dialects.
The formation of the Polish identity and ethnicity can be traced to the 10th century when Duke Mieszko I politically unified the Slavic tribes of Polans , Mazovians , Slezans , Vistulans , Pomeranians , Lendians and others,   which inhabited the area of central Europe between the Oder River in the west and the Bug River in the east, and between the Carpathian and Sudetes mountains in the south and the Baltic sea in the north, and then by accepting Christianity as the official state religion.
Following the formation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in , the country over the next two centuries contained many languages, cultures and religions.
When Poland regained its independence in , Poles constituted the majority of the population in the country, during the interwar period , with sizable Ukrainian, Belarusian, Jewish and German minorities.
Today, Poland is primarily inhabited by ethnic Poles. In the census , 37,, Other identities were reported by 88, people 0.
The persistence was demonstrated by a series of rebellions known as the Pagan reaction in the first half of the 11th century, which also showed elements of a peasant uprising against landowners and feudalism,  and led to a mutiny that destabilized the country.
Since then, Poland has been a predominantly Catholic nation, however throughout its history, religious tolerance was an important part of the political culture.
In , the Statute of Kalisz , also known as a Charter of Jewish Liberties, granted Jews living in the Polish lands unprecedented legal rights not found anywhere in Europe.
Then in , the Warsaw Confederation marked the formal beginning of extensive religious freedoms granted to all faiths in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The act was not imposed by a king or consequence of war, but rather resulted from the actions of members of the Polish-Lithuanian society.
It was also influenced by the events of the French St. Also, in the 16th century, Anabaptists from the Netherlands and Germany settled in Poland—after being persecuted in Western Europe—and became known as the Vistula delta Mennonites.
There are also several thousand neopagans, some of whom are members of the Native Polish Church. He is the only Polish Pope to date.
Freedom of religion is now guaranteed by the statute of the Polish Constitution,  enabling the emergence of additional denominations.
Orthodox pilgrims visit Mountain Grabarka near Grabarka-Klasztor. State subsidised healthcare is available to all Polish citizens who are covered by this general health insurance program.
However, it is not compulsory to be treated in a state-run hospital as a number of private medical complexes exist nationwide.
All medical service providers and hospitals in Poland are subordinate to the Polish Ministry of Health , which provides oversight and scrutiny of general medical practice as well as being responsible for the day-to-day administration of the healthcare system.
In addition to these roles, the ministry is tasked with the maintenance of standards of hygiene and patient-care. Hospitals in Poland are organised according to the regional administrative structure, resultantly most towns have their own hospital Szpital Miejski.
In , the Polish health-care industry experienced further transformation. Hospitals were given priority for refurbishment where necessary.
In , the average life expectancy at birth was It is compulsory that children participate in one year of formal education before entering the 1st class at no later than 7 years of age.
Corporal punishment of children in schools is officially prohibited since before the partitions and criminalised since in schools as well as at home.
At the end of the 6th class when students are 13, students take a compulsory exam that will determine their acceptance and transition into a specific lower secondary school gimnazjum —middle school or junior high.
They will attend this school for three years during classes 7, 8, and 9. Students then take another compulsory exam to determine the upper secondary level school they will attend.
There are several alternatives, the most common being the three years in a liceum or four years in a technikum.
In Poland, there are university-level institutions for the pursuit of higher education. The culture of Poland is closely connected with its intricate 1,year history.
With origins in the culture of the Proto-Slavs , over time Polish culture has been profoundly influenced by its interweaving ties with the Germanic , Latinate and Byzantine worlds as well as in continual dialog with the many other ethnic groups and minorities living in Poland.
In the 19th and 20th centuries the Polish focus on cultural advancement often took precedence over political and economic activity. These factors have contributed to the versatile nature of Polish art, with all its complex nuances.
Artists from Poland, including famous musicians like Chopin , Rubinstein , Paderewski or Penderecki and traditional, regionalized folk composers , create a lively and diverse music scene, which even recognizes its own music genres, such as sung poetry and disco polo.
As of [update] , Poland is one of the few countries in Europe where rock and hip hop dominate over pop music, while all kinds of alternative music genres are encouraged.
Other early compositions, such as the melody of Bogurodzica and God Is Born a coronation polonaise for Polish kings by an unknown composer , may also date back to this period, however, the first known notable composer, Nicholas of Radom , was born and lived in the 15th century.
Most of the compositions written were either liturgical music , or secular compositions such as concertos and sonatas for voices or instruments.
At the end of the 18th century, Polish classical music evolved into national forms like the polonaise.
In the 19th century the most popular composers were: Alexandre Tansman lived in Paris but had strong connections with Poland.
Traditional Polish folk music has had a major effect on the works of many well-known Polish composers, and no more so than on Fryderyk Chopin, a widely recognised national hero of the arts.
It is largely thanks to him that such pieces gained great popularity throughout Europe during the 19th century. Nowadays the most distinctive folk music can be heard in the towns and villages of the mountainous south, particularly in the region surrounding the winter resort town of Zakopane.
Today Poland has a very active music scene, with the jazz and metal genres being particularly popular among the contemporary populace.
Polish jazz musicians such as Krzysztof Komeda created a unique style, which was most famous in the s and s and continues to be popular to this day.
Art in Poland has always reflected European trends while maintaining its unique character. Perhaps the most prominent and internationally admired Polish artist was Tamara de Lempicka , who specialized in the style of Art Deco and whose paintings are often collected by celebrities and well-known personas.
Prior to the 19th century only Daniel Schultz and Italian-born Marcello Bacciarelli had the privilege of being recognized abroad. Within historically-orientated circles, Henryk Siemiradzki dominated with his monumental Academic Art and ancient Roman theme.
Since the inter-war years, Polish art and documentary photography has enjoyed worldwide fame and in the s the Polish School of Posters was formed.
Although not Polish, the work had a strong influence on Polish culture and has been often associated with Polish identity. Polish cities and towns reflect a whole spectrum of European architectural styles.
Romanesque architecture is represented by St. Nonetheless, a number of ancient structures has survived: The centre of Kazimierz Dolny on the Vistula is a good example of a well-preserved medieval town.
The second half of the 17th century is marked by baroque architecture. The profuse decorations of the Branicki Palace in Warsaw are characteristic of the rococo style.
Traditional folk architecture in the villages and small towns scattered across the vast Polish countryside is characterized by its extensive use of wood as the primary building material.
Some of the best preserved and oldest structures include wooden churches , and tserkvas primarily located across southern Poland in the Beskids and Bieszczady regions of the Carpathian mountains.
Within Polish literary customs, it is appropriate to highlight the published works concerning Poland not written by ethnic Poles.
The most vivid example is Gallus Anonymus , a foreign monk and the first chronicler who described Poland and its territories.
The first documented phrase in the Polish language reads " Day ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai " "Let me grind, and you take a rest" , reflecting the culture of early Poland.
Most medieval records in Latin and the Old Polish language contain the oldest extant manuscript of fine Polish prose entitled the Holy Cross Sermons , as well as the earliest Polish-language bible, the so-called Bible of Queen Sophia.
A Polish writer who utilized Latin as his principal tool of expression was Klemens "Ianicius" Janicki , one of the most renowned Latin poets of his time, who was laureled by the Pope.
Throughout this period Poland also experienced the early stages of Protestant Reformation. During the Polish Baroque era, the Jesuits greatly influenced Polish literature and literary techniques, often relying on God and religious matters.
Jan Chryzostom Pasek , also a respected baroque writer, is mostly remembered for his tales and memoirs reflecting sarmatian culture in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Nicholas Wisdom , which was a milestone for Polish literature. A Polish prose poet of the highest order, Joseph Conrad , the son of dramatist Apollo Korzeniowski , won worldwide fame with his English-language novels and stories that are informed with elements of the Polish national experience.
The history of Polish cinema is as long as history of cinematography itself. Over decades, Poland has produced outstanding directors, film producers, cartoonists and actors that achieved world fame, especially in Hollywood.
Moreover, Polish inventors played an important role in the development of world cinematography and modern-day television. In , Jan Szczepanik , obtained a British patent for his Telectroscope.
This prototype of television could easily transmit image and sound, thus allowing a live remote view. Following the invention of appropriate apparatus and technological development in the upcoming years, his then-impossible concept became reality.
Polish cinema developed rapidly in the interwar period. The most renowned star of the silent film era was Polish actress Pola Negri.
During this time, the Yiddish cinema also evolved in Poland. Films in the Yiddish language with Jewish themes, such as The Dybbuk , played an important part in pre-war Polish cinematography.
Poland has a number of major media outlets, chief among which are the national television channels. Poland has several hour news channels: Rzeczpospolita , founded in is one of the oldest newspapers still in operation in the country.
Poland has also emerged as a major hub for video game developers in Europe, with the country now being home to hundreds of studios. Polish cuisine shares many similarities with other Central European cuisines, especially German and Austrian  as well as Jewish ,  Belarusian , Ukrainian , Russian ,  French and Italian culinary traditions.
Festive meals such as the meatless Christmas Eve dinner Wigilia or Easter breakfast could take days to prepare in their entirety.
The side dishes are usually potatoes, rice or kasza cereals. Other frequently consumed beverages include various mineral waters and juices, soft drinks popularized by the fast-food chains since the late 20th century, as well as buttermilk , soured milk and kefir.
The golden era of football in Poland occurred throughout the s and went on until the early s when the Polish national football team achieved their best results in any FIFA World Cup competitions finishing 3rd place in the and the tournaments.
The team won a gold medal in football at the Summer Olympics and two silver medals, in and in He won the Canadian Grand Prix and now does rallying following a crash in that left him unable to drive F1 cars.
Poland has made a distinctive mark in motorcycle speedway racing thanks to Tomasz Gollob , a highly successful Polish rider. The top Ekstraliga division has one of the highest average attendances for any sport in Poland.
The national speedway team of Poland , one of the major teams in international speedway,  has won the Speedway World Team Cup championships three times consecutively, in , , and No team has ever managed such feat.
Poles made significant achievements in mountaineering, in particular, in the Himalayas and the winter ascending of the eight-thousanders.
Polish mountains are one of the tourist attractions of the country. Hiking, climbing, skiing and mountain biking and attract numerous tourists every year from all over the world.
Fashion was always an important aspect of Poland and its national identity. Poland belongs to one of the most fashionable and best-dressed countries in the world.
Moreover, several Polish designers and stylists left a lifelong legacy of beauty inventions and cosmetics , which are still in use nowadays.
Throughout history, the clothing styles in Poland often varied due to foreign influence, especially from the neighbouring countries and the Middle East.
Because of its geographical position, Poland was metaphorically referred to as a trade route that linked Western Europe with the Ottoman Empire , Crimean Khanate and Persia.
This allowed the Poles to absorb several habits, which were present in the Middle East at the time. The high-class nobility and magnates wore attire that somewhat resembled oriental styles.
Wealthy Polish aristocrats also kept captive Tatars and Janissaries in their courts; this affected the national dress. The Polish national dress as well as the fashion and etiquette of Poland also reached the royal court at Versailles in the 18th century.
In the early 20th century, the underdeveloped fashion and cosmetics industry in Congress Poland was heavily dominated by western styles, mostly from the United Kingdom and the United States.
This inspired Polish beautician Maksymilian Faktorowicz to seek employment abroad and create a line of cosmetics company called Max Factor in California.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the dance, see Polska dance. For other uses, see Rzeczpospolita Polska disambiguation.
For other uses, see Poland disambiguation. Show map of Europe. History of Poland — and Partitions of Poland. History of Poland —present and enlargement of the European Union.
Foreign relations of Poland and List of diplomatic missions of Poland. Administrative divisions of Poland. Energy in Poland and Coal mining in Poland.
Demographics of Poland , Demographic history of Poland , and Polish diaspora. List of cities and towns in Poland. Largest cities or towns in Poland Central Statistical Office population report for Polish language and Languages of Poland.
Religions in Poland Roman Catholicism. Ballade form invented by Chopin. Inspired by poems of Adam Mickiewicz. Polish literature and History of philosophy in Poland.
Cinema of Poland and Theatre of Poland. Television in Poland and Media of Poland. Video gaming in Poland. The percentages of ethnic Poles and of minorities depend on how we count.
Dziewanowski has noted that "if Polish forces fighting in the east and west were added to the resistance fighters, Poland had the fourth largest Allied army in the war after the USSR, the U.
The confusion often stems from the fact that as war progressed, some resistance movements grew larger — and other diminished.
Polish territories were mostly freed from Nazi German control in the years —45, eliminating the need for their respective anti-Nazi partisan forces in Poland although the cursed soldiers continued to fight against the Soviets.
Several sources note that Polish Armia Krajowa was the largest resistance movement in Nazi-occupied Europe.
After that point, the numbers of Soviet partisans and Yugoslav partisans begun growing rapidly. The numbers of Soviet partisans quickly caught up and were very similar to that of the Polish resistance.
Number and demographical-social structure. Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica in Polish. National Census of Population and Housing ] in Polish.
Retrieved 31 May The Force of Faith in Social-movement Activism. Retrieved 9 September — via Google Books. Archived from the original PDF on 28 October Retrieved 12 August Size and structure and vital statistics in Poland by territorial division in As of December 31".
Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Retrieved 9 October Retrieved 15 September United Nations Development Programme. A Concise History of Poland First ed.
A History , Pimlico , p. The price of freedom: Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 14 April — via Multishoring.
Stephan Faris 27 November Retrieved 14 April Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 16 July Archived from the original on 17 July Archived from the original on 12 March Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 6 February Do Rzeczy in Polish.
Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 26 October A History of Poland. Central European University Press, pp. The union of Lublin, Polish federalism in the golden age.
The Polish Biographical Dictionary: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. A History of East European Jews. Central European University Press. Timelines of World History.
In Frucht, Richard C. An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. Retrieved 8 April At the same time, when most of Europe was decimated by the Black Death, Poland developed quickly and reached the levels of the wealthiest countries of the West in its economy and culture.
Mediterranean Studies Group at Hitotsubashi University. Archived from the original PDF on 5 June Political Realities and Social Constrains.
In Howard Louthan; Gary B. Negotiating Religious Difference in Central Europe, — A Concise History of Poland. Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 18 June Poland and its fate, to ; p.
Stalinism and Nazism Compared. Hidden Systems that deliver Unforgettable Customer Service. BoD — Books on Demand. Poland and the Poles in the Second World War.
Zaloga; Richard Hook The Polish Army — Retrieved 6 March — via Google Books. Historical Dictionary of Poland, — Eastern Europe to A Question of Honor.
Grenkevich in The Soviet Partisan Movement, — A Critical Historiographical Analysis, p. Retrieved 1 March The number of Jewish victims is estimated at 2,9 million.
Current estimate is roughly 2,, victims of German occupation. Polskie straty to 76— tys. Institute of National Remembrance.
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